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Here’s Who Needs a Flu Shot This Year, from Infectious Disease Specialists

Turns out, almost all of us need the flu vaccine in 2022. New research has found wise ways to enhance the effectiveness of your flu shot, plus flu shot mistakes to avoid.

Yes, you should get your flu shot

Many vaccines offer near-total protection against a disease, the flu shot isn’t one of them. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates the annual flu shot reduces your risk of catching the flu by 40 to 60 percent. But if that seems like OK odds to gamble on, you might want to think again. The flu is a serious illness that can lead to pneumonia, hospitalizations, and death, says Margaret Khoury, MD, pediatric infectious disease specialist and regional lead of the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Flu Vaccination Program. And while the flu shot may not entirely prevent you from catching the virus, it greatly lowers the chance you’ll have a serious case. 

The CDC spells it out like this: during the 2019-2020 flu season, flu shots prevented 7.5 million illnesses, 3.7 million medical visits, 105,000 hospitalizations, and 6,300 deaths. Notably, the flu shot offers critical protection for children—the CDC says 80 percent of kids who die from influenza are unvaccinated.

While the only real way to mess up your flu shot is to not get it at all, top experts tell The Healthy @Reader’s Digest the biggest mistakes people make when it comes to the flu vaccine.

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woman doctor giving an elderly man a shotiStock/Catherine Yeulet

You don’t get the vaccine because you think you’re too old—or young

Anyone older than six months should get the flu vaccine (unless you have a medical reason to avoid it, like an allergy or an immune disorder), Dr. Khoury says. This is especially important for children older than six months or anyone who cares for children, the elderly or their caregivers, pregnant women, people with asthma, heart disease, or diabetes; anyone over age 50; anyone who suffers from an autoimmune disease; anyone who lives in a nursing home or long-term care facility; those with obesity; and all healthcare workers, she says. That pretty much means all of us. However, if you’re over the age of 65, wait until at least late October to get your vaccine (between Halloween and Thanksgiving). This is because the vaccine’s protection wanes more quickly in older individuals. If they get the vaccine too soon, protection might not last the entire flu season. (But if the only choice for some seniors is to get the vaccine earlier or not at all, they should choose to get it earlier.)

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African American doctor giving a man his flu shotiStock/Steve Debenport

You skip this year’s flu shot because you got one last year

Every year, influenza viruses mutate, which means the virus isn’t the same as the one you were vaccinated against last year. “People need to get the flu shot every year because flu viruses are constantly changing,

and it is not unusual for new flu viruses to appear each year,” says Caroline Sullivan, nurse practitioner, primary care provider, and assistant professor of nursing at Columbia University in New York City. Plus, Sullivan says, “Studies have shown that the body’s immunity to influenza either through natural infection or vaccination declines over time.”

Here’s how the flu vaccine works: ahead of each flu season, health experts around the world determine which flu strains pose the greatest threat. This research informs what goes into that year’s flu shot—exactly how effective it is depends on the accuracy of those predictions, with some years faring better than others. The final product is either a “trivalent” or “quadrivalent” flu shot, which means it protects against the three or four strains of influenza. So, even if experts only get one or two strains correct it’s still worthwhile to get the shot, Dr. Khoury explains.

And if you got the vaccine last year and still came down with the flu, it’s natural to question getting the flu shot again. But experts say that in these scenarios, the virus has mutated so the vaccine hasn’t kept up, or the illness you might have had was not true influenza, but another virus altogether.

15 Signs You May Have Already Had Covid-19, Doctors Reveal

Asian woman sneezing into a tissueiStock/andresr

You avoid the vaccine because you suspect you already got the flu

Are you sure it was the flu and not some other recent virus? Not only can you not be sure you’ve had it (unless you were tested), but there are multiple strains of influenza circulating every year—so getting one strain doesn’t protect you from the others, Dr. Khoury says.

As a bonus, even if you are sick, the flu shot can lessen the severity of your illness and protects you from other viruses through cross-protection antibodies, she says. These are viruses that are similar to the strains of flu in the flu vaccine, which your body learns to fight off.

Nourishment is key to recovery. Here’s what to eat if you have the flu.

woman outdoors holding her armistock/Mixmike

You think the flu vaccine will actually give you the flu

This is the most common misconception people have about the flu shotbut science doesn’t back it up. The flu shot is made in such a way that it either contains no flu virus at all, or an inactivated or noninfectious virus, says Dr. Khoury. So while the flu vaccine may cause a low-grade fever and muscle aches in some people, these symptoms are usually temporary and are not actually an influenza infection.

 You should also make sure you know these 10 myths about vaccinations you can safely ignore.

African American young man looking warily at a syringe in a doctor's handsistock/Juanmonino

You make the flu vaccine hurt even more than it should by tensing up

Fear of needles is a very common reason people avoid the flu shot, and there are ways to help you deal with this, says Amy Baxter, MD, founder and CEO of MMJ Labs. “I do the scientific research on why, but the important thing is once someone is afraid, they tend to keep that fear for life,” she says.

Fortunately, you can have some control over how painful the vaccination experience is for you. “Tensing a muscle makes it hurt more, so try to relax the arm and focus on breathing,” says Baxter. “There are many strategies to reduce needle fear, but it usually takes three good experiences to help someone overcome it.”

Learn how one woman overcame her fear of needles for good

people doing deadlifts at a gymiStock/gradyreese

You don’t exercise the day of your flu shot

A 2022 study published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, found that light to moderate exercise—like walking or jogging—after you get your flu shot helps your body churn out more flu-fighting antibodies. (The study also shows that this is true for the COVID-19 vaccine—and that exercise doesn’t increase the vaccine’s side effects.)

What’s more, the enhanced immune response from just that one workout lasts for weeks beyond your vaccination. 

How to Exercise After Covid-19: Lung and Exercise Doctors Share Current Wisdom

doctor discussing treatment with a patientistock/knape

You wait too long to get the vaccine

A typical flu season in North America starts as early as October and continues into May—and the flu shot works best early in the season, Dr. Khoury says. The sooner a person is vaccinated, the more antibodies and immunity they can develop before the height of flu season, which is January and February, she explains.

And since it takes about two weeks to build up immunity after you receive the vaccine, the CDC recommends getting the flu shot as soon as it is available (which is why most doctor’s offices and pharmacies start offering it as early as September).

But if you find yourself unvaccinated in late January or February, it’s still recommended to get the flu vaccine.

Here are 19 other ways to keep the flu at bay this season

pregnant woman holding a teddy beariStock/vgajic

You don’t get the flu vaccine because you’re pregnant or breastfeeding

This is a hot topic among pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as those trying to conceive, but the verdict is in: you should absolutely get vaccinated. “Pregnant women should definitely get a flu vaccine, as they’re one of the most susceptible populations and can become seriously ill and even die from the flu,” says Laura Haynes, PhD, a professor in the department of immunology at the University of Connecticut.

Plus, if you’re breastfeeding an infant and have received the vaccine during your pregnancy, then you pass all of the immunity you acquired from the vaccine onto your newborn or infant—this is called “passive immunity,” and it’s a benefit of breastfeeding, she explains.

It’s not just the flu shot, either. Here’s why parents need to be up-to-date on all their vaccinations

Don’t miss these 40 things your doctor wishes you knew about vaccines.

Keep reading:

People: Kathleen Cameron, MPH, senior director, Center for Healthy Aging, National Council on Aging (NCOA) Caroline Sullivan, nurse practitioner, primary care provider, and assistant professor of nursing at Columbia University Margaret Khoury, MD, pediatric infectious disease specialist and regional lead of the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Flu Vaccination Program Amy Baxter, MD, founder and CEO of MMJ Labs Laura Haynes, PhD, professor in the department of immunology at the University of Connecticut   Websites: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “How Well Flu Vaccines Work”   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “When Is Flu Season” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: “Influenza (Flu) Pregnancy”  Journals: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: “Exercise after influenza or COVID-19 vaccination increases serum antibody without an increase in side effects”
Medically reviewed by Michael Spertus, MD, on October 22, 2019

Jenn Sinrich
Jenn Sinrich is an experienced digital and social editor in New York City. She's written for several publications including SELF, Women's Health, Fitness, Parents, American Baby, Ladies' Home Journal, and more. She covers topics from health, fitness, and food to pregnancy and parenting. In addition to writing, Jenn volunteers with Ed2010, serving as the deputy director to Ed's Buddy System, a program that pairs recent graduates with young editors to give them a guide to the publishing industry and to navigating New York. When she's not busy writing, editing, or reading, she's enjoying and discovering the city she's always dreamed of living in with her fiancé, Dan, and two feline friends, Janis and Jimi.
Leslie Finlay, MPA
In addition to The Healthy, Leslie has written for outlets such as,,, and more, specializing in content related to healthcare, nutrition, mental health and wellness, and environmental conservation and sustainability. She holds a master's degree in Public Policy focused on the intersection between public health and environmental conservation, and an undergraduate degree in journalism. Leslie is based in Thailand, where she is a marine conservation and scuba diving instructor. In her spare time you'll find her up in the air on the flying trapeze or underwater, diving coral reefs.